Author(s). Article title. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;vol(issue#): pages of article. DOI.
1. Ganss C, Neutard L, von Hinckeldey J, Klimek J, Schlueter N. Efficacy of a tin/fluoride rinse: a randomized in situ trial on erosion. J Dent Res. 2010;89(11):1214-1218. doi:10.1177/0022034510375291
Take note that…
Author(s). Title of Dissertation. Type of document. University Name; Year. Access date [if accessed online]. URL [if accessed online]
*There are, as a rule, only two document types to choose from for this kind of material: Dissertation or Master's Thesis.
1. Austin LD. Oral Status of Residents of Long-term Care Facilities in Kentucky. Dissertation. University of Louisville; 2009.
2. McCurry CL. A Story-Centered Approach to AP English Literature, Curriculum, and Assessment. Master's thesis. University of New Orleans; 2020. Accessed May 27, 2022. https://scholarworks.uno.edu/td/2761/
UptoDate topic pages should be cited like chapters in a book titled UpToDate, edited by Ted W. Post, published by UpToDate, with no page numbers.
Topic page author(s). Topic page title. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. UpToDate; year. Accessed [date]. URL
1. Chow AW. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of odontogenic infections. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. UpToDate; 2022. Accessed May 27, 2022. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-clinical-manifestations-of-odontogenic-infections
Author(s). Title. Name of dept/bureau/etc.; Publication date/year. Additional publication numbering or series info. Accessed [date]. URL
Henry M, Mahathey A, Morrill T, Robinson A, Shivji A, Watt R; and Abt Associates. The 2018 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress. Part 1: Point-in-Time Estimates of Homelessness. Office of Community Planning and Development, US Dept of Housing and Urban Development; 2018. Accessed January 11, 2019. https://www.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/2018-AHAR-Part-1
Format for organizational and government reports varies widely – especially if you wander into the world of numbered codes and resolutions. In these cases, use your best judgment, consult the AMA manual online (see Chapter 3, sections 3.13.2 and 3.15.5), or (if needed) reach out to a librarian for assistance.
Author(s). Title of page or document cited. Name of Website. Date of publication, if available. Updated date, if available. Accessed date. URL
1. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Understanding drug use and addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Updated June 6, 2018. Accessed September 4, 2018. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-use-addiction
Think of these as a mashup of a journal and website citation.
Author. Title of article. Name of Newspaper. Date published. Section [if present]. Page numbers [if present]. Accesed date. URL
1. Wootson CR Jr. Dentists keep dying of this lung disease. The CDC can’t figure out why. The Washington Post. March 10, 2018. Accessed September 4, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2018/03/10/dentists-keep-dying-of-this-deadly-lung-disease-the-cdc-cant-figure-out-why/?utm_term=.015450faf8d3
Chances are you will most likely be citing online news sources. If this is the case, you will often not see a “section” or page numbers because news publishers reformat content for online environments and remove things like page numbers - which would mean nothing to online readers. However, if you do see this information online, include it! Additionally, if you are citing a print newspaper – or a PDF of an old print newspaper in a database, this is important information to include.
Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. Edition. Publisher name; copyright year:pages of chapter or cited section. Accessed date [for books online]. URL [for books online/ebooks]
1. Dillman DA, Smyth JD, Christian LM. Mixed-mode questionnaires and survey implementation. In: Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. 4th Ed. Wiley; 2014:398-448.
2. Harrington S. Citing sources is a basic skill learned early on. In: Ball CE, Loewe DM, eds. Bad Ideas About Writing. West Virginia University Digital Publishing Institute; 2017:242-246. https://textbooks.lib.wvu.edu/badideas/badideasaboutwriting-book.pdf
1. If the author of the chapter cited is also the editor of the book, omit editor information.
2. To cite a book as a whole, rather than referring to an individual chapter or specific pages, do this: Author(s). Book Title. Edition. Publisher; year of publication. Accessed date (if online/ebook). URL (if online/ebook)
3. No edition number is needed for the first edition of a text.
Author. Title or brief description.; year published. Accessed date. URL
For additional information and examples about the citation and formatting guidance provided in the 11th edition, consult the online version of the manual here: