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DTHY 351

AMA Minimum Required Data (Basic Info)

The point of uniformly formatted references is to provide readers with a feasible means of finding the sources you used to form your arguments or otherwise build the foundation of your work. The world of information is endless. Many works have the same title; many authors have the same name. Thus, for the sake of clarity, there is a minimum amount of data about a resource that must appear in an AMA reference citation.

AMA References

Basic Info

Author(s). Article title. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;vol(issue#): pages of article. DOI.

Example

1. Ganss C, Neutard L, von Hinckeldey J, Klimek J, Schlueter N. Efficacy of a tin/fluoride rinse: a randomized in situ trial on erosion. J Dent Res. 2010;89(11):1214-1218. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034510375291

Discussion

Take note that…

  • The first word of the subtitle (portion of the title after the colon) is not capitalized. This differs from some other formatting styles.
  • There is no comma between an author’s last name and initials. Nor is there a period after the initials. The period only occurs at the end of the list of authors, prior to the article title.
  • Most – an overwhelming majority – of all scholarly articles accessed online will have a DOI (digital object identifier). Sometimes that DOI is formatted as a URL beginning with “https…” other times it begins with “doi...” For example: doi.10.1038/nature02312 Both of these formats are acceptable.
  • If there is no DOI, end the reference citation at the end of the article’s pages.

Basic Info

Author(s). Title of Dissertation. [dissertation]. University’s City, State (or country): University Name; Year.

Example

1. Austin LD. Oral Status of Residents of Long-term Care Facilities in Kentucky. [dissertation] Louisville, KY: University of Louisville; 2009.

UptoDate topic pages should be cited like chapters in a book entitled UpToDate. The URL

Basic Info

Topic page author(s). Topic page title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. Edition. Publisher’s City, State (or country): Publisher name; year. URL (for ebooks). Accessed date.

Example

1. Chow AW. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of odontogenic infections. In: Post T, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA.: UpToDate; 2018. www.uptodate.com. Accessed January 29, 2019.

Discussion

There will be some common elements in all UpToDate citations. Those are bolded below:

1. Chow AW. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of odontogenic infections. In: Post T, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA.: UpToDate; 2018. www.uptodate.com. Accessed January 29, 2019.

The changing elements will include:

  • The author listed at the top of the topic page
  • The topic page title
  • The published/updated date
  • The date you accessed the topic page

For the published/updated year, refer to the "last updated" year provided toward the top of the article page, as depicted in the image below.

Screenshot of top of UpToDate topic page - includes title, author, and update information.

Basic Info

Author(s). Title. Publisher’s City, State: Name of dept/bureau/etc.; Publication date/year. Additional publication numbering or series info. Accessed date.

Example

Henry M, Mahathey A, Morrill T, Robinson A, Shivji A, Watt R; and Abt Associates. The 2018 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress. Part 1: Point-in-Time Estimates of Homelessness. Washington, DC: Office of Community Planning and Development, US Dept of Housing and Urban Development; 2018. https://www.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/2018-AHAR-Part-1.pdf. Accessed January 11, 2019.

Discussion

Format for organizational and government reports varies widely – especially if you wander into the world of numbered codes and resolutions. In these cases, use your best judgment, consult the AMA manual (there’s a copy at the Rice Library's Reference desk), and – of course – feel free to contact your librarian for assistance!

Basic Info

Author(s). Title of page or document cited. Name of Website. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.

Example

1. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Understanding drug use and addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-use-addiction. Updated June 6, 2018. Accessed September 4, 2018.

Discussion

Websites are tricky fun.

  • Author: Sometimes the author of a particular page or section of a site is an individual, other times it’s an organization. If you see individual names as authors somewhere on the page, list them. If not, default to the organization as author.
  • Title: You might notice that in this example the site’s author (the organization) is also the name of the website. When this happens, be sure to add the words “Website” to the website name. This way can avoid a citation that simply reads: “National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Institution on Drug Abuse. http://...”
  • Dates: Not all sites provide updated and published dates. But there should be at least one of those two dates. If a particular page or section of a site you are on does not provide a distinct published/updated date, search for a “last updated” date in the footer of the whole website. Always provide the date you accessed the site.

Think of these as a mashup of a journal and website citation.

Basic Info

Author. Title of article. Name of Newspaper. Date published. Section. Page numbers. URL. Accessed date.

Example

Wootson CR Jr. Dentists keep dying of this lung disease. The CDC can’t figure out why. The Washington Post. March 10, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2018/03/10/dentists-keep-dying-of-this-deadly-lung-disease-the-cdc-cant-figure-out-why/?utm_term=.015450faf8d3. Accessed September 4, 2018.

Discussion

Chances are you will most likely be citing online news sources. If this is the case, you will often not see a “section” or page numbers because news publishers reformat content for online environments and remove things like page numbers - which would mean nothing to online readers. However, if you do see this information online, include it! Additionally, if you are citing a print newspaper – or a PDF of an old print newspaper in a database, this is important information to include.

 

Basic Info

Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. Edition. Publisher’s City, State (or country): Publisher name; copyright year:pages of chapter or cited section. URL (for ebooks). Accessed date.

Print Book Example

1. Dillman DA, Smyth JD, Christian LM. Mixed-mode questionnaires and survey implementation. In: Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. 4th Ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2014:398-448.

eBook Example

2. Harrington S. Citing sources is a basic skill learned early on. In: Ball CE, Loewe DM, eds. Bad Ideas About Writing. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Digital Publishing Institute; 2017:242-246. https://textbooks.lib.wvu.edu/badideas/badideasaboutwriting-book.pdf

Basic Info

Author. Title or brief description.; year published. URL. Accessed date.